PSR has participated in the design of new regulatory frameworks for Brazil, Colombia, China , the Central America Regional Market , Turkey and Venezuela. The scope of the studies included, among others, transmission tariff design, capacity fees, transmission congestion contracts, evaluation of bidding schemes and identification of market power, design of regional interconnections for countries with diverse regulatory schemes. In Brazil, PSR has been an advisor to market institutions and regulators on a wide range of regulatory, market design and energy trading issues, including rules for price/quantity risk management of hydro plants, establishment of zonal pricing schemes, transmission congestion allocation, and audit of the wholesale Trading Rules. PSR also acted as principal advisor to the Ministry-level Committee for managing the 2001-2002 energy supply crisis; to the Presidential Committee that investigated the causes of the crisis and recommended improvements to the power sector model; and to the (then) Minister of Energy on the implementation of regulatory reforms. In 2003 and 2004, PSR advised the Brazilian government on the design of new rules for the power sector. In particular, PSR was been directly involved in the design of the PPA auctions that are mandatory for distribution utilities. These auctions have awarded over US$ 60 billion in contracts since 2004.