In contrast to many other convex optimization classes, state-of-the-art semidefinite programming solvers are still unable to efficiently solve large-scale instances. This work aims to reduce this scalability gap by proposing a novel proximal algorithm for solving general semidefinite programming problems. The key characteristic of the proposed algorithm is to be able to exploit the low-rank property inherent to several semidefinite programming problems. Exploiting the low-rank structure provides a substantial speedup and allows the operator splitting method to efficiently scale to larger instances. As opposed to other low-rank based methods, the proposed algorithm has convergence guarantees for general semidefinite programming problems. Additionally, an open-source semidefinite programming solver called ProxSDP is made available and its implementation details are discussed. Case studies are presented in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology.